It is always rewarding to build for repeat clients, which is the case with our current Unity home in Essex, Connecticut, our seventh since launching the new line of residences in October 2012. The two-story, 2,450 square foot Tradd is Net-Zero ready, is expected to exceed the Passive House standard for air tightness, and like all Unity Homes, can go from foundation to finished home in 30-40 working days.
Our local on-site builder for both Unity homes in Essex, A. Joseph Shea, was instrumental in bringing Bensonwood’s Unity Homes and the two Essex couples together.
This latest Unity, our first Tradd 134, is a 4-bedroom, 3.5 bath shore home customized with solid-sawn Douglas fir timbers and high-end finishes and mechanicals. The custom Tradd will serve as the guest house to the main house; a home for which Bensonwood built an addition back in 2012.
The retirement-age clients had considered building a fully-custom home with Bensonwood, but chose Bensonwood’s sister company, Unity Homes, instead because of its streamlined design-build process. They didn’t want to spend a lot of time making the myriad decisions a full-phase custom design process can require. Instead, they were able to visit Unity’s Walpole, NH facilities and, after just one day of finalizing the design and selecting finishes, moved to contract.
The energy-efficient, prefab green home is currently in fabrication at our Blackjack Road facilities, concurrent with the site work. Its weathertight shell will then be raised on site in a matter of days, later this month, and finished during the summer. Like the Xyla, Zūm, and Värm Unity Homes, it features sustainable wood construction, ample use of natural light, low VOC building materials for greater indoor air quality, paints, adhesives, and sealants, as well as dense-pack cellulose insulation, solid, sound dampening construction, and draft-free even-temperature comfort.
Bensonwood prefabricated the building and acted as general contractor. We worked in collaboration with the award-winning architectural firm, Ruhl Walker Architects. The multi-use academic building incorporates many of the latest advances in 21st century construction, including prefabrication of panelized assemblies, energy-efficient design and rapid onsite assembly.
The ArtsCenter is named after Catherine “Kitty” Houghton, a school trustee who was killed in 2013. The Center has two dance studios, a music studio with a recording studio, an art studio that opens to the outdoors, a recessed outdoor performing arts stage and a ceramics kiln. A bridge to its second floor connects the Center to the main campus.
Designed for Net-Zero performance, the new arts center has a super-efficient geothermal heat pump system, with the electrical power supplied by rooftop solar photovoltaics. The rooftop PV will generate more power than the arts center needs, with the excess being used to power a portion of the other academic buildings.
In our second baseball-related project in recent years, Bensonwood is currently prefabricating a wood grandstand for Elizabeth Lowell Park, home of the Cotuit Kettleers, 14-time Cape Cod Baseball League champions. Our 40-year history of building with timbers seems a perfect fit for one of the nation’s premier wooden bat league teams.
The grandstand is being engineered and fabricated at our Blackjack facilities into precision-crafted timberframe superstructure elements, as well as panelized platform risers, framing and seating assemblies. The finished assemblies will be trucked to the site and flown into place by a crane, greatly reducing the onsite construction time. The Cotuit Kettleers of Massachusetts remain the only Cape Cod League team to fully maintain its playing field and park without the use of public funds and the current grandstand project is part of a multi-year Lowell Park Renovation Program.
Bensonwood engineers Elizabeth Beauregard and Chris Carbone modeled the Cotuit grandstand using CAD/CNC software. Fabrication and selection of wood species occurs at 3 levels: Level I, the timberframe superstructure, utilizes pressure-treated southern yellow pine glulam beams. Level II, the framing and platform risers, is comprised of southern yellow pine. Level III, which includes the seating, guardrails, and other elements fans come in contact with are made of stadium-quality Port Orford cedar (POC)—a high grade of the species used in many of the finest grandstands—with a natural finish applied to enhance POC’s natural resistance to weather. In fact, when the world famous Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena was built, the architects insisted on Port Orford cedar planking for its beauty, strength and durability. All elements are precision-cut using our CNC machinery, and where feasible, preassembled into transportable elements.
Our engineers calculate that the grandstands sequester approximately 42 metric tons of carbon dioxide through the wood in the structure, whereas equivalent aluminum or steel elements would be strictly classified as a CO2 emitter. The grandstand guardrails are a new wood and steel mesh we designed to maximize sight lines without sacrificing structural integrity.
The Cotuit Kettleers baseball team is comprised of student athletes drafted from colleges around the nation. During their tenure with the Kettleers, players are expected to get involved with service projects for the betterment of the surrounding communities.
Wooden bat leagues are amateur baseball leagues that use wood versus aluminum or composite bats. Because pro baseball allows wooden bats only, these leagues are heavily scouted by Major League Baseball clubs to establish how well a college prospect can hit with the bats used in the majors. In 2004 alone, there were over 150 Kettleers veterans on MLB rosters.
More than 1,000 Cape Cod league alumni have played in the major leagues, with many achieving “All-Star” status and/or earning World Series rings. NY Yankees manager Joe Girardi is a Cotuit Kettleers alum, as is Boston Red Sox hometown favorite and now radio personality Lou Merloni.
Paul M. Logan, president of the Cotuit Athletic Association, said, “The Cotuit Kettleers organization is thrilled to be partnering with Bensonwood on a new grandstand structure at LowellPark. The 600-plus seat grandstand will replace an outdated 50-year-old structure, and while considering all options, our fans and donors implored us consider wood and not steel. Bensonwood not only makes the finest wood products in the northeast, but they were also willing to work with us on designing new grandstands using new technology. Many thanks to Bensonwood for their willingness to create what will be a landmark product for both organizations.”
A year ago when Carol and Ed Reardon wanted to build a healthy, energy-efficient, year-round residence on a lake, they knew whom to call. Bensonwood had recently launched its sister company, Unity Homes, which offers healthy, high-performance, more affordable homes. Here was their chance to own a high-quality Bensonwood home on a budget they could afford. Best of all, they discovered they would be living in the home in only five months’ time.
The home, a Xyla 132, is the first Unity home to feature solar electric panels, which power the HVAC system, including an air source heat pump for both heating and cooling, and heat recovery ventilation. Because of the extremely low energy demands of the Unity building shell (the highly-insulated homes meet or exceed Passive House levels of air tightness), and with the state and federal incentives, the solar panels by Solar Source made sense financially.
The home site, on a picture-perfect lake in southern New Hampshire, had been in Carol’s family for decades, so she became the driving force behind the project. The first step was to remove the old camp sitting on the land with serious rot and mold in the crawl space and above the ceilings.
Carol was particularly interested in the health aspects of Unity homes. Living with allergies, she wanted cabinets and vanities with low VOCs (volatile organic compounds), wood construction and a sophisticated ventilation system. All Unity homes share these health benefits, along with solid, light-filled, quiet spaces that promote a sense of well-being.
Carol says, “Unity came along at the right time for us. We have downsized to a beautiful new home where we can enjoy our retirement years in a place we love.” Ed Reardon adds, “Bensonwood and Unity people have been a pleasure to work with throughout this process. Special praise goes to Unity project manager Ryan Lawler who couldn’t have been more helpful, responsive and encouraging.”
When I previously wrote about Montage Homebuilding, I explained why I am no fan of the terms prefab and modular. They represent different objectives and methods in off-site building systems, but both suffer from deep blemishes brought on by their flawed legacies. I therefore announced a new name for our unique off-site fabrication system, which has been assiduously developed to correct—rather than integrate with—the status quo.
The promise of prefabrication has always been the simple proposition of using industrialization advances to bring consumers greater affordability simultaneous with improved quality. And why not? It has already been achieved in most every other consumer products sector from automobiles, to appliances, to furniture, and to, well, nearly everything. Modern manufacturing has indeed scaled quality and value, and buyers have come to expect it because they usually get it.
But in housing, people have instead learned to associate prefabrication and modular manufacturing methods with pigeonholing words like flimsy, toxic, cheap, temporary, limited, compromised and, oddly, to an architectural style: modernist. Of course, the associations aren’t always deserved, but I argue that most of the off-site building industry continues to do more to reinforce the stereotypes than to overcome them, making the unfortunate perceptions too true, too often.
Naturally, I was quite interested to find a rather provocative article titled, “Why It’s Time to Give Up on Prefab.” The author, Australian architect Chris Knapp, is the director of Built-Environmental Practice, a firm that appears from its website to have a vibrant design practice, both residential and commercial. The article addresses all forms of off-site building under the single word prefabrication, as “the term identifies a range of applications for building and building components of any scale, not just housing. Yet the target of prefabrication has been focused upon housing since the very beginning.” As an architect, Knapp is particularly focused on the fractured history of prefabrication in architecture, which serves both as complement and counterpoint to my design-build perspective.
While we have simply renamed our process “montage” for clarity of intent and to avoid association, Knapp has a more radical point of view: “This is a call for the end of prefabrication.” His argument asserts that there has been too much trying and not enough succeeding, just a “countless series of disappointments.” That point is easy to make because the string of flame-outs is long and includes luminary architects like Buckminster Fuller, Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier. Even Thomas Edison took a crack at it. From these examples and those of many others, a reasonable conclusion is that the promise of prefabrication would not be realized through a singular design or engineering concept. The future of housing was bigger than Le Corbusier’s ego, and while not perhaps as big as Fuller’s, its requirements couldn’t be reduced to his domes. Gropius could not see past Bauhaus ideals, and after attempting to pour concrete into a gigantic house-shaped form to create a monolithic structure, Edison probably realized that lightbulb-scale fail-to-success experiments were more practical.
But these aren’t good reasons to aim bullets at prefab in my opinion, and the contemporary efforts Knapp mentions don’t necessarily deserve that either. Charlie Lazor’s FlatPak house is really very innovative, and mainly suffers from being named for how it is shipped and being defined by a particular style: his. Similarly, Kieran Timberlake’s work is ambitious, creative, and courageous. They are attempting to bring the future forward and are addressing important issues with structure, form, connections, modularity, material relationships, and mechanical systems ahead of their time. If the whole looks irrelevant, as it apparently does to Knapp, in detail there is much to gain from their Loblolly and Cellophane House™ prototypes. I know. We built Loblolly. When you throw out all the conventional assumptions about building systems and design-construction process, you get to a place where there’s a virtuous cycle of innovation, feeding on itself. It wasn’t intended to be the solution, but to be a learning laboratory for finding solutions, and between Kieran Timberlake and our team, we found many. There’s a good video about the Loblolly vision and process here.
So the failure of prefab is not specifically in the bumpy history of flaws and failures. That’s how things get improved. Instead, it fails when architects want to shrink it down to their vision, and when an entire sector of architecture attempts to be defined by it, which is a self-limiting cage both to the modernist style itself and to the prefab moniker it wants to own. Stuck in that cage, prefab has had trouble freeing itself for broader duty in more traditional forms, as modernist proponents want the construction system to look like the buildings they love rather than an efficient, quality enhancing building process.
Though he tried, Knapp can’t quite kill the idea of prefab. As he says, “…one must reflect upon this series of utopian misfires in prefabrication’s evolution and wonder why architects have not managed to capitalize effectively upon the platform.” He seems to overlook the possibility that it isn’t about architects. It can live with them, but it is a construction method, not a design style, and therefore is not dependent on their influence, and absolutely will do better without their dominance. Inadvertently, he says so himself by pointing out that prefabrication is successful in Japan and Scandinavia. In both those cases, homebuilding companies design homes as products and sell them through catalogs and models by the thousands. And what do they get for it? Ask a Swede, in whose country they have the highest standard of housing in the world. Or inspect a Japanese house, where production efficiency is unparalleled and defects are as unacceptable as they are in their cars.
Moreover, Knapp overlooked other North American successes that also aren’t architect dominated. It is well known that Sears and Montgomery Ward sold so many houses throughout the U.S. in the first decades of the 20th century that many towns are still greatly defined by their style and influence. The ubiquity of catalog commerce, as well as the incredible convenience of rail delivery in those years, made the popular architectural styles of that period available in nearly every corner of the country. They clearly played a role in the proliferation of the Arts and Crafts homes, most notably, but also the spare, pragmatic American Foursquare style, which gets little attention these days, but visits my dreams often, as I grew up in a wonderful Foursquare home built in 1895, before the catalog home years.
The other giant of prefab in that era was the E.F. Hodgson Company from Dover, Massachusetts. They started earlier than Sears or Montgomery Ward and also developed a more sophisticated modular system (below), which allowed them to deliver the building in more complete panels. Since many of their homes were shipped overseas, they are less well known, but it’s possible that their production was greater than Sears. My wife’s parents lived in a Hodgson home in New York and thought its quality excellent. There were other off-site homebuilding companies in that era (Aladdin Ready-Cut Houses, for instance), but these three were the largest, and accounted for perhaps 250,000 to 300,000 homes between them. Not to belabor the point, but none of these companies were founded, managed, or in any way controlled, by architects.
In the end, Knapp turns against his own theme and argues for the continuation of off-site building:
“The concept and practice of fabricating architectural elements in either part or whole under conditions separated from the contingencies of the construction site is now more important and relevant to gain efficacy as a profession today than ever before. Architects should continue to pre-build off-site, out of the weather, out of harm’s way, and in the most intelligent manner possible. This should include trusses, insulating sandwich panels, curtain walls and modular concepts, but the result needs to be considered, implemented and promoted with greater sophistication.”
That’s a very strong argument for, not against, off-site building. But depending on his meaning, I’m not sure I agree with the words I highlighted. Architects typically don’t actually build their designs, and therefore I don’t think it should be assumed that the off-site fabrication operations should be the purview of architects. For the most part, that has not worked. On the other hand, successful off-site fabrication companies usually depend on architects and professional designers to create beautiful and functional home designs.
Finally, I fully agree that the “the result needs to be considered, implemented and promoted with greater sophistication.”
So should we give up on prefab? Perhaps not. Let’s just elevate it “with greater sophistication” and call it montage.